Resolution of LPS-induced airway inflammation and goblet cell hyperplasia is independent of IL-18
1 Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM, USA
2 University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, USA
Respiratory Research 2007, 8:24 doi:10.1186/1465-9921-8-24Published: 12 March 2007
The resolution of inflammatory responses in the lung has not been described in detail and the role of specific cytokines influencing the resolution process is largely unknown.
The present study was designed to describe the resolution of inflammation from 3 h through 90 d following an acute injury by a single intratracheal instillation of F344/N rats with LPS. We documented the inflammatory cell types and cytokines found in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and epithelial changes in the axial airway and investigated whether IL-18 may play a role in the resolution process by reducing its levels with anti-IL-18 antibodies.
Three major stages of inflammation and resolution were observed in the BALF during the resolution. The first stage was characterized by PMNs that increased over 3 h to 1 d and decreased to background levels by d 6–8. The second stage of inflammation was characterized by macrophage influx reaching maximum numbers at d 6 and decreasing to background levels by d 40. A third stage of inflammation was observed for lymphocytes which were elevated over d 3–6. Interestingly, IL-18 and IL-9 levels in the BALF showed a cyclic pattern with peak levels at d 4, 8, and 16 while decreasing to background levels at d 1–2, 6, and 12. Depletion of IL-18 caused decreased PMN numbers at d 2, but no changes in inflammatory cell number or type at later time points.
These data suggest that IL-18 plays a role in enhancing the LPS-induced neutrophilic inflammation of the lung, but does not affect the resolution of inflammation.