Biphasic effect of extracellular ATP on human and rat airways is due to multiple P2 purinoceptor activation
Laboratoire de Physiologie Cellulaire Respiratoire, Université Bordeaux 2, Bordeaux, F-33076 France; Inserm, E356, Bordeaux, F-33076 France
Respiratory Research 2005, 6:143 doi:10.1186/1465-9921-6-143Published: 8 December 2005
Extracellular ATP may modulate airway responsiveness. Studies on ATP-induced contraction and [Ca2+]i signalling in airway smooth muscle are rather controversial and discrepancies exist regarding both ATP effects and signalling pathways. We compared the effect of extracellular ATP on rat trachea and extrapulmonary bronchi (EPB) and both human and rat intrapulmonary bronchi (IPB), and investigated the implicated signalling pathways.
Isometric contraction was measured on rat trachea, EPB and IPB isolated rings and human IPB isolated rings. [Ca2+]i was monitored fluorimetrically using indo 1 in freshly isolated and cultured tracheal myocytes. Statistical comparisons were done with ANOVA or Student's t tests for quantitative variables and χ2 tests for qualitative variables. Results were considered significant at P < 0.05.
In rat airways, extracellular ATP (10-6–10-3 M) induced an epithelium-independent and concentration-dependent contraction, which amplitude increased from trachea to IPB. The response was transient and returned to baseline within minutes. Similar responses were obtained with the non-hydrolysable ATP analogous ATP-γ-S. Successive stimulations at 15 min-intervals decreased the contractile response. In human IPB, the contraction was similar to that of rat IPB but the time needed for the return to baseline was longer. In isolated myocytes, ATP induced a concentration-dependent [Ca2+]i response. The contractile response was not reduced by thapsigargin and RB2, a P2Y receptor inhibitor, except in rat and human IPB. By contrast, removal of external Ca2+, external Na+ and treatment with D600 decreased the ATP-induced response. The contraction induced by α-β-methylene ATP, a P2X agonist, was similar to that induced by ATP, except in IPB where it was lower. Indomethacin and H-89, a PKA inhibitor, delayed the return to baseline in extrapulmonary airways.
Extracellular ATP induces a transient contractile response in human and rat airways, mainly due to P2X receptors and extracellular Ca2+ influx in addition with, in IPB, P2Y receptors stimulation and Ca2+ release from intracellular Ca2+ stores. Extracellular Ca2+ influx occurs through L-type voltage-dependent channels activated by external Na+ entrance through P2X receptors. The transience of the response cannot be attributed to ATP degradation but to purinoceptor desensitization and, in extrapulmonary airways, prostaglandin-dependent PKA activation.